As far as I can work out this is a Stanley Nr 70 Box Scraper (although it doesn't have a Stanley number on it). According to Patrick's Blood and Gore Stanley Guide
this was manufactured between 1877 and 1958. It was originally intended to scrape the markings off wooden shipping boxes so they could be reused, but presumably it was used more as a basic scraper.
The blade part can swing freely in the frame that is attached to the handle. It can be drawn towards the user or swung round and pushed.
This one here had sat in poor conditions for nearly 20 years, and looks in a bad state:
After some brushing and twenty gallons of oil:
The blade has the following words stamped into it:
Stanley Rule & Lever Co.
Pat'd April 4 1876.
This is a catalogue entry for something similar in the 1935 Buck and Hickman catalogue: